1. ZUS (Social Insurance Institution):
    • ZUS manages the public pension system in Poland.
    • Pension contributions are mandatory and paid by employers and the self-employed
    • The amount of the pension depends on the length of the contribution period and the amount of contributions made.
  2. Third pension pillar:
    • Currently, the pension system in Poland consists of three pillars:
      1. Pillar I: Compulsory social insurance administered by the Social Security.
      2. Pillar II: Open Pension Funds (OFEs) – since 2014 it has been possible to transfer funds from OFEs to ZUS.
      3. Pillar III: Voluntary saving for retirement (IKE – Individual Pension Accounts, IKZE – Individual Retirement Security Accounts, PPE – Employee Pension Plans).
  3. Minimum retirement age:
    • Women: 60 years
    • Men: 65 years
  1. Individual Retirement Accounts (IKE):
    • A voluntary account into which funds can be deposited for future retirement.
    • Gains from an IKE are exempt from capital gains tax, subject to withdrawal upon reaching retirement age.
  2. Individual Retirement Security Accounts (IKZE):
    • Similar to IKE, but with an additional tax advantage – contributions to IKZE can be deducted from the tax base.
    • Funds withdrawn upon reaching retirement age are subject to a flat-rate income tax (10%).
  3. Employee Capital Plans (PPK):
    • A voluntary scheme for employees, co-financed by the employer and the state.
    • The employee, the employer and the state contribute to the employee’s individual pension account.
  4. International pension plans:
    • Foreigners can also benefit from international pension plans offered by financial institutions in their home countries.
  1. Poland:
    • ZUS: Mandatory contributions, low flexibility.
    • IKE/IKZE: Voluntary, tax-advantaged individual accounts.
    • PPK: Voluntary, co-financed by the employer and the state.
  2. Germany.:
    • Deutsche Rentenversicherung: Mandatory pension scheme similar to ZUS.
    • Riester-Rente: Voluntary savings with state subsidies, tax-advantaged.
    • Rürup-Rente: Alternative plan for the self-employed, also with tax benefits.
  3. UK:
    • State Pension: The basic state pension.
    • Workplace Pensions: Pension schemes offered by employers, similar to PPKs.
    • Personal Pensions: Individual pension plans with favourable tax conditions.
  4. USA:
    • Social Security: Mandatory system similar to Social Security.
    • 401(k): Employee pension plan with tax benefits, employers often offer subsidies.
    • IRA (Individual Retirement Account): Individual retirement account with tax benefits.

The pension system in Poland offers various saving options, both compulsory and voluntary, which may be attractive to foreigners. When comparing Polish pension plans with those of other countries, it is worth noting the favourable tax conditions and the possibility of employer co-financing. Retirement planning is a key financial aspect that needs to be properly understood and tailored to individual needs and capabilities.